wisha)I wish to make a complaint = I want to make a complaint. (more formal)
b)Sometimes wish is used in greeting and expressions of goodwill:
I wish you all the best in your new job.
I wish you a safe flight. (= I hope you a safe flight)
I wish you a happy birthday.
c) Wish is most commonly used in hypothetical (or imagined) situations:
- I wish that I had a dog. (I don't really have a dog, but if I did, I would be happy.)
I wish (that) you were here. (Unfortunately, you're not, and I miss you.)
He wishes he lived in Paris.
He never helps me with the dishes. I wish he would.
I've eaten too much. I wish I hadn't.
hopeHope can also be used in expressions of goodwill, but the grammar is slightly different:
|I hope (that) you have a Merry Christmas.|
I hope (that) you had a nice Birthday.
|(some time in the future)|
(some time in the past)
I hope you a safe flight
The strike begins tomorrow. I hope the buses will still be running.
Hope can be used to specify a desired outcome. For future hopes, the possibilities remain open, but for past hopes, the outcome has usually been determined already.
|I hope you can come to the party on Saturday.|
I was hoping that you would come to the party.
I had hoped to see you at the party on Saturday.I hope to get an A on the exam.
I hope it doesn't rain tomorrow.
He hopes to be elected President.
She hoped you wouldn't find her.
(but you didn't make it)
(but I didn't)(it is still possible)
(although it might)
(it could happen)
(but you probably did)
In such situations, wish carries a more definite and formal tone.
|I wish to see the doctor.I hope to see you again.||(right now)(anytime in the future)|